Fucoxanthin Elicits Epigenetic Modifications, Nrf2 Activation and Blocking Transformation in Mouse Skin JB6 P+ Cells.
AAPS J. 2018 02 20 ;20(2):32. Epub 2018 Feb 20. PMID: 29603113
Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2) is a master regulator of the anti-oxidative stress response, which is involved in the defense against many oxidative stress/inflammation-mediated diseases, including anticancer effects elicited by an increasing number of natural products. Our previous studies showed that the epigenetic modification of the Nrf2 gene plays a key role in restoring the expression of Nrf2. In this study, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic regulation of Nrf2 by astaxanthin (AST) and fucoxanthin (FX), carotenoids which are abundant in microalgae and seaweeds, in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells. FX induced the anti-oxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2 downstream genes in HepG2-C8 cells overexpressing the ARE-luciferase reporter. Both FX and AST decreased colony formation in 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced transformation of JB6 P+ cells. FX decreased the methylation of the Nrf2 promoter region in the JB6 P+ cells by the bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing. Both FX and AST significantly reduced DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity but did not affect histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in JB6 P+ cells. In summary, our results show that FX activates the Nrf2 signaling pathway, induces the epigenetic demethylation of CpG sites in Nrf2 and blocks the TPA-induced transformation of JB6 P+ cells, indicating the potential health-promoting effects of FX in skin cancer prevention.