The impact of vitamin C on the relationship among inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and platelet activation during analgesic nephropathy in rats.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3. PMID: 28771433
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced renal damage. This study examines the relationship between 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and platelet activation as well as the relative contribution of the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in enhanced 8-iso-PGF2α biosynthesis, as a complementary onset during analgesic nephropathy induced by chronic treatment with paracetamol. The protective effects of vitamin C on the aforementioned settings are also investigated.
METHODS: Analgesic nephropathy was induced in Wistar rats. Renal function markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. Immunoassays were used to measure the pro-inflammatory markers and the markers of lipid peroxidation and platelet activation.
RESULTS: The chronic treatment with paracetamol led to renal dysfunction, represented by the elevation of plasma urea and creatinine and the decline in the enzymatic antioxidant status, but did not cause a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β. The paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced production of 8-iso-PGF2α was not sufficient to cause changes in platelet activation represented by the level of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that oxidative stress cannot circumvent the need of stimulation by circulatory cytokines in order to induce inflammatory response and changes in platelet activation during analgesic nephropathy. Vitamin C proved to be beneficial in restoring the renal function markers to normal, increasing the renal enzymatic antioxidant potential, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and lowering cytokine production and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 excretion. The observed effects of vitamin C offer support for its potential use as protective treatment in cases of chronic paracetamol overdose.