Mitochondria-mediated Caspase-dependent and Caspase-independent apoptosis induced by aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera leaves in human melanoma cells.
Mol Biol Rep. 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32372172
Bich Hang Do
Malignant melanoma is a very aggressive and serious type of cutaneous cancer. Previous studies indicated the anti-cancer activity of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves (MOE) against a variety of cell lines. However, there has not been much research about the effect of MOE on melanoma. Therefore, this study was about to investigate the anti-proliferation mediated by apoptosis of MOE on human melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, the related molecular mechanisms of the apoptosis were also examined. An aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was prepared and the anti-proliferative activity on melanoma cells and normal cells was tested using WST-1 assay. The apoptotic hallmarks including DNA condensation and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization were assessed. The expression of apoptosis-related genes and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential were then examined to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. MOE inhibited cell growth of A375 cells and A2058 cells in a dose-dependent manner but had little effect on human normal fibroblasts. The cell growth inhibition was induced by apoptosis which was expressed via chromatin condensation and PS externalization. MOE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, MOE increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activated Caspase-3/7, Caspase-9, PARP and AIF translocation, leading to apoptotic cell death. Our study indicated that MOE exerted significant anti-cancer effects on melanoma cells in vitro which involved mitochondria-mediated Caspase-dependent and Caspase-independent apoptosis pathways. These results provided a scientific approach for using Moringa oleifera leaves as an alternative therapy to treat skin cancer.