Hesperidin Effects on Gut Microbiota and Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Healthy Rats.
Nutrients. 2019 Feb 2 ;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 2. PMID: 30717392
Hesperidin, found in citrus fruits, has shown a wide range of biological properties. Nonetheless, a more in-depth investigation is required on the effects on the immune system, and in particular, on the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, together with its relationship with the gut microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to establish the influence of oral hesperidin administration on the intestinal lymphoid tissue and on the gut microbiota composition in healthy animals. Lewis rats were orally administrated 100 or 200 mg/kg hesperidin three times per week for four weeks. Microbiota composition and IgA-coated bacteria were determined in caecal content. Mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte (MLNL) composition and functionality were assessed. IgA, cytokines, and gene expression in the small intestine were quantified. Hesperidin administration resulted in a higher number of bacteria and IgA-coated bacteria, with changes in microbiota composition such as higherproportion. Hesperidin was also able to increase the small intestine IgA content. These changes in the small intestine were accompanied by a decrease in interferon-γ and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentration. In addition, hesperidin increased the relative proportion of TCRαβ+ lymphocytes in MLNL. These results show the immunomodulatory actions of hesperidin on the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and reinforce its role as a prebiotic.