Higher Blood Vitamin C Levels are Associated with Reduction of Apolipoprotein E E4-related Risks of Cognitive Decline in Women: The Nakajima Study.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11. PMID: 29758939
BACKGROUND: Antioxidants like vitamins C and E may minimize the risk for Alzheimer's disease.
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether vitamins C and E modify the apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4-related risks for developing cognitive decline.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study including Japanese residents aged 65 years from Nakajima, Japan. The participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and underwent blood tests including tests for vitamins C and E levels and APOE phenotypes. The APOE E4-by-gender-by-vitamin C or E interactions on developing cognitive decline were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of 606 participants with normal cognitive function determined using a baseline survey (2007-2008), 349 completed the follow up survey between 2014 and 2016. In women with APOE E4, significantly reduced risk for cognitive decline was observed for the highest blood vitamin C concentration tertile [multivariate OR 0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.93)] compared with the lowest tertile. In men without APOE E4, significantly reduced risk for cognitive decline was observed for the highest blood vitamin E concentration tertile [multivariate OR 0.19 (0.05-0.74)] as compared with the lowest tertile.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate significant beneficial effects of vitamins C and E in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in women with APOE E4 and men without APOE E4, respectively.