Influence of Vitamin D Deficiency on Progression of Experimental Otitis Media in Rats.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2018 Jun ;33(2):296-304. PMID: 29947185
Hee Bok Kim
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune response against infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of vitamin D deficiency on the progression of otitis media (OM) using an experimental rat model.
METHODS: Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) were divided into two groups based on their diet: a control diet group (n=36) and a vitamin D-deficient diet group (n=36). After 8 weeks of diet, experimental OM was induced by inoculation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in the middle ear cavity. The rats were evaluated with otomicroscopy to determine the inflammation in the middle ear mucosa on days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 post-inoculation. Bullae from sacrificed rats were collected and analyzed histologically.
RESULTS: The middle ear mucosa from rats with vitamin D deficiency showed a significantly higher thickness than that of controls during the course of OM. The maximum mucosal thickness was 56.0±9.1 μm in the vitamin D deficiency group, and 43.9±9.8 μm in the control group, although there was no significant difference in the tympanic membrane score between the two groups evaluated with otomicroscopy. An immunohistochemical study showed increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α in rats manifesting vitamin D deficiency and decreased expression of IL-10 compared with controls.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed that vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate the pathophysiological changes of OM via altered cytokine production. Therefore, maintaining vitamin D status in the optimal range may be beneficial for proper management of OM.