Anti-inflammatory effect of delphinidin on intramedullary spinal pressure in a spinal cord injury rat model.
Exp Ther Med. 2017 Dec ;14(6):5583-5588. Epub 2017 Sep 27. PMID: 29285096
Delphinidin, a flavonoid polyphenolic compound, is widely found in nature and is used as a food supplement due to its pharmacological activity. The aims of the present study were to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of delphinidin in alleviating spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced inflammation in a rat model and to determine the underlying mechanisms in SCI. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores of rats were assessed to evaluate the effect of delphinidin on the recovery of motor function. ELISA kits were also used to analyze the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and caspase-3. In addition, the protein expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activator protein 1 (AP-1) and p38-MAPK protein expression were measured using western blot analysis. Treatment with delphinidin significantly increased the BBB scores, as well as inhibited the intramedullary spinal pressure in SCI rats. Delphinidin treatment also significantly suppressed the levels of inflammatory factors and NF-κB protein expression in SCI rats. Finally, treatment with delphinidin significantly inhibited NF-κB stimulation, COX-2 activity, PGE2 production, and AP-1 and p38-MAPK protein expression in SCI rats. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of delphinidin alleviated inflammation in the SCI rat model via alleviation of the intramedullary spinal pressure through the NF-κB and p38-MAPK signaling pathways.