(Chamomile) Ameliorates Muscle Atrophy in Mice by Targeting Protein Catalytic Pathways, Myogenesis, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.
Am J Chin Med. 2021 Jul 10:1-22. Epub 2021 Jul 10. PMID: 34247561
Sang Hee Park
Muscle atrophy, or loss of skeletal muscle, is caused by aging, malnutrition, immobility through injury, or diseases such as cancer. Chamomile (L.) contains various active components, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, polyacetylenes, and coumarins, and is used in various herbal medicines in the European Pharmacopoeia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of chamomile [Formula: see text](MC) on muscle wasting and its mechanism of action. Mice with dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy were orally administered MC (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that MC (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly recovered DEX-induced loss of muscle volume, density, and weight and MC-treated DEX-induced mice also showed increased moving distance and grip strength. MC suppressed the mRNA level of muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) while increasing the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), MyoD, and Myogenin-1. We found 25 peaks in MC samples through HPLC analysis and identified 6 peaks by comparison with a profile of standard compounds: chlorogenic acid (CGA), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (L7G), patulitrin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside (A7G), herniarin, and (E)-tonghaosu. Of these components, the gene expression of MyoD was significantly augmented by patulitrin, herniarin, CGA, and L7G in C2C12 cells, while Myogenin-1 gene expression was increased by A7G, patulitrin, herniarin, CGA, and L7G. Moreover, TFAM gene expression and phosphorylation of AKT were increased by all six ingredients. Based on our results, we suggest MC for use as a supplement or remedy for muscle wasting, including cachexia and sarcopenia.