Red Ginseng Attenuates Aβ-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Aβ-mediated Pathology in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 21 ;20(12). Epub 2019 Jun 21. PMID: 31234321
Soo Jung Shin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is known to be a major cause of AD pathogenesis. However, recent studies have clarified that mitochondrial deficiency is also a mediator or trigger for AD development. Interestingly, red ginseng (RG) has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on AD pathology. However, there is no evidence showing whether RG extract (RGE) can inhibit the mitochondrial deficit-mediated pathology in the experimental models of AD. The effects of RGE on Aβ-mediated mitochondrial deficiency were investigated in both HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells and the brains of 5XFAD Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mice. To examine whether RGE can affect mitochondria-related pathology, we used immunohistostaining to study the effects of RGE on Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis in hippocampal formation of 5XFAD mice. In vitro and in vivo findings indicated that RGE significantly improves Aβ-induced mitochondrial pathology. In addition, RGE significantly ameliorated AD-related pathology, such as Aβ deposition, gliosis, and neuronal loss, and deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in brains with AD. Our results suggest that RGE may be a mitochondria-targeting agent for the treatment of AD.