Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid, Attenuatesβ-Amyloid Oligomer-Induced Neurotoxicity Possibly via Regulating the PI3K/Akt and the ERK Pathways in SH-SY5Y Cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:6792543. Epub 2017 Aug 8. PMID: 28928905
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic impairments, and loss of neurons. Oligomers ofβ-amyloid (Aβ) are widely accepted as the main neurotoxins to induce oxidative stress and neuronal loss in AD. In this study, we discovered that fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid with antioxidative stress properties, concentration dependently prevented Aβ oligomer-induced increase of neuronal apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. Aβ oligomers inhibited the prosurvival phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade and activated the proapoptotic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Moreover, inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) andmitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) synergistically prevented Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal death, suggesting that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways might be involved in Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with fucoxanthin significantly prevented Aβ oligomer-induced alteration of the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways. Furthermore, LY294002 and wortmannin, two PI3K inhibitors, abolished the neuroprotective effects of fucoxanthin against Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxicity. These results suggested that fucoxanthin might prevent Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal loss and oxidative stress via theactivation of the PI3K/Akt cascade as well as inhibition of the ERK pathway, indicating that further studies of fucoxanthin and related compounds might lead to a useful treatment of AD.