These results support further testing of hydroxytyrosol for prostate cancer therapy. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Hydroxytyrosol Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest and Suppresses Multiple Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2017 Aug-Sep;69(6):932-942. Epub 2017 Jul 18. PMID: 28718667
SCOPE: Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol from olives, is a potential anticancer agent. This study was designed to evaluate the anticancer activity of HT against prostate cancer cells, and the mechanism thereof.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment of LNCaP and C4-2 prostate cancer cells with HT resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation. This was in contrast to HT's ineffectiveness against normal prostate epithelial cells RWPE1 and PWLE2, suggesting cancer-cell-specific effect. HT induced G1/S cell cycle arrest, with inhibition of cyclins D1/E and cdk2/4 and induction of inhibitory p21/p27. HT also induced apoptosis, as confirmed by flow cytometry, caspase activation, PARP cleavage, and BAX/Bcl-2 ratio. It inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt/STAT3, and induced cytoplasmic retention of NF-κB, which may explain its observed effects. Finally, HT inhibited androgen receptor (AR) expression and the secretion of AR-responsive prostate-specific antigen.
CONCLUSION: Castration-resistant prostate cancers retain AR signaling and are often marked by activated Akt, NF-κB, and STAT3 signaling. Our results establish a pleiotropic activity of HT against these oncogenic signaling pathways. Combined with its nontoxic effects against normal cells, our results support further testing of HT for prostate cancer therapy.