Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in relation to hypertension among Iranian university students: the MEPHASOUS study.
Eat Weight Disord. 2019 May 21. Epub 2019 May 21. PMID: 31115792
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the link between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption and hypertension among a large population in the Middle East.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (a part of Mental and Physical Health Assessment of University Student: MEPHASOUS study), 66,634 university students from all provinces of Iran, aged ≥ 18 years, were included. A self-administered dietary habits questionnaire was used to assess SSBs consumption as well as other dietary intakes. Participants were categorized based on three levels of SSB consumption: < 1 time/wk, 1-3 times/wk, and ≤ 3 times/wk. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥ 140 and diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 90.
RESULTS: Compared with those in the bottom category, students in the top category of SSBs consumption were more likely to have hypertension (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.54-1.90). This association remained significant even after adjusting for confounding variables; such that participants in the highest category of SSBs consumption had 2.17 times greater odds of hypertension compared with those in the lowest category (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.91-2.47). Stratified analysis based on gender and BMI status revealed such significant association in men (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.79-2.50) and women (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.67-2.48), and in all categories of BMI including studentswith underweight (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.81-3.52), normal-weight (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.81-2.51), overweight (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.58-2.89) and obesity (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.00-2.53).
CONCLUSION: Our results support previous findings indicating a significant positive association between SSBs consumption and hypertension.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, cross-sectional analytic studies.