Ethnomedicine based evaluation of osteoprotective properties of Tinospora cordifolia on in vitro and in vivo model systems.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Mar ;87:342-354. Epub 2017 Jan 5. PMID: 28064107
Indian ethnomedicine acclaims the use of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) in the treatment of bone fractures and vat rakta (gout). The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on bone remodeling (involving osteoblastic and osteoclastic actions) in vitro and protect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 and primary osteoblast cells isolated from rat femur were used as osteoblast models and RAW macrophage cell line 264.7 induced to take up osteoclastic lineage using RANK ligand were used as osteoclast models in the current study. Sirius red staining, quantification of osteocalcin, cytopathological analysis by Hematoxylin/eosin staining and semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out to ascertain the effects of T. cordifolia extract on osteoblast cells. MTT assay was perfomed to understand the influence of T. cordifolia extract on osteoclast cells. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used as in vivo models to study the effect of T. cordifolia on ovariectomy induced bone loss. Radiological (DEXA analysis), Biochemical (markers of bone formation and resorption), histopathological (Hematoxylin/eosin staining) and histomorphometric analysis of the bone was carried out. Treatment with T. cordifolia extract resulted in enhanced collagen deposition, increased levels of osteocalcin, increased expression of osteogenic genes all indicative of favourable osteoblastogenesis. Treatment with T. cordifolia extract did not exert any significant influence on the proliferation of osteoclasts. Pretreatment with T. cordifolia extract at a dose of 50mg/kg body wt/day orally for 21days followed by treatment for 12 weeks post ovariectomy was able to prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Results of the study support the use of T. cordifolia in Indian ethnomedicine for the treatment of bone diseases and fractures.