Effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields on micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells.
Mutat Res. 2003 Nov 10 ;541(1-2):81-9. PMID: 14568297
To investigate the effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HFEMFs), we assessed the frequency of micronucleus (MN) formation induced by chromosomal breakage or inhibition of spindles during cell division in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells, using the cytokinesis block micronucleus method. The MN frequency in cells in the inner, middle and outer wells of an annular culture plate was determined for the following four conditions: (1) CHO-K1 cells were exposed to a HFEMF for 18 h at average specific absorption rates (SARs) of 13, 39 and 50 W/kg with input power 7.8 W, and were compared with a sham-exposed control; (2) the cells were also exposed to a HFEMF at SARs of 78 and 100 W/kg with input power 13 W, and were compared with a sham-exposed control; (3) the cells were treated with bleomycin alone or with bleomycin followed by exposure to a HFEMF for 18 h at SARs of 25, 78 and 100 W/kg, and were compared with a bleomycin-treated positive control. The cells treated with bleomycin alone were compared with sham-exposed controls; and (4) As a high temperature control, CHO-K1 cells were incubated at 39 degrees C for 18 h. In study (1), the MN frequency of cells exposed to a HFEMF at a SAR of up to 50 W/kg was not different to that in sham-exposed cells. In study (2), there were statistically significant increases in the MN frequencies of cells in the middle and outer wells of the annular culture plate caused by exposure to a HFEMF at 100 and 78 W/kg, respectively. In study (3), the MN frequencies of cells in the middle (100 W/kg) and outer wells (78 W/kg) of the annular culture plate were statistically higher than that caused by bleomycin-treatment alone. In study (4), there was a statistically significant increase of MN frequency in the cells treated by heat at 39 degrees C. These results indicate that cells exposed to a HFEMF at a SAR of 78 W/kg and higher form MN more frequently than sham-exposed cells, while exposure to a HFEMF at up to 50 W/kg does not induce MN formation. In addition, a HFEMF at a SAR of 78 W/kg and higher may potentiate MN formation induced by bleomycin-treatment.