Thymoquinone administration into leukemia-bearing mice induced leukemia regression. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Thymoquinone exerts potent growth-suppressive activity on leukemia through DNA hypermethylation reversal in leukemia cells.
Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21. PMID: 28415607
Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive constituent of the volatile oil of Monarda fistulosa and Nigella sativa, possesses cancer-specific growth inhibitory effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. We propose that TQ curbs cancer cell growth through dysfunction of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Molecular docking analysis revealed that TQ might interact with the catalytic pocket of DNMT1 and compete with co-factor SAM/SAH for DNMT1 inhibition. In vitro inhibitory assays showed that TQ decreases DNMT1 methylation activity in a dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of 30 nM. Further, exposure of leukemia cell lines and patient primary cells to TQ resulted in DNMT1 downregulation, mechanistically, through dissociation of Sp1/NFkB complex from DNMT1 promoter. This led to a reduction of DNA methylation, a decrease of colony formation and an increase of cell apoptosis via the activation of caspases. In addition, we developed and validated a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method and successfully detected a dynamic change of TQ in mouse plasma after administration of TQ through the tail vein, and determined a tolerable dose of TQ to be 15 mg/kg in mouse. TQ administration into leukemia-bearing mice induced leukemia regression, as indicated by the reversed splenomegaly and the inhibited leukemia cell growth in lungs and livers. Our study for the first time demonstrates that DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation mediates the anticancer actions of TQ, opening a window to develop TQ as a novel DNA hypomethylating agent for leukemia therapy.