Thymoquinone ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction, improves reproductive efficiency exhibiting a dose-organ relationship.
Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2019 Jul 1:1-16. Epub 2019 Jul 1. PMID: 31262199
Women with obesity are more likely to have a complicated reproductive life. Insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction are associated with obesity. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a well-known antioxidant, considered to be an AMPK-activator. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of TQ to improve fertility and lactation and clarify the possible mechanism. Female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to High Fat Diet (HFD) supplemented with TQ (10% pmm) and TQ (20% pmm). Histopathological examination was conducted on mammary and ovarian samples. Metabolic and oxidant status was evaluated, and qRT-PCR analysis was performed to verify AMPK/PGC1α/SIRT1 metabolic pathway activity. The present study reports positive effects of TQ on ovarian metabolic function in a dose-dependent manner. TQ showed its positive effects on mammary gland metabolic function at lower dose. This is the first study that indicates these dose related impacts of TQ.AKT1: serine-threonine protein kinase 1; AMPK: 5' AMP-activated protein kinase; CAT: catalase; CON: control; FBS: fasting blood sugar; GLUT1: glucose transporter 1; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide; HE: hematoxylin and eosin stains; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; HFD: high fat diet; IL-6: interleukin-6; K18: keratin 18; LD: lactation day; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; LKB1: serine-threonine liver kinase B1; MDA: malondialdehyde; mTOR: the mammalian target of rapamycin; NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NS: nigella sativa; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PGC1α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SOD: superoxide dismutase; T-AOC: total antioxidants; TFAM: transcription factor A mitochondrial; TG: triglycerides; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α; TQ: thymoquinone; TQ10: high fat diet + thymoquinone 10%ppm; TQ20: high fat diet + thymoquinone 20% ppm; UCP2: uncoupling Protein 2.