Thymoquinone shows the diverse therapeutic actions by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways: single drug for multiple targets.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13. PMID: 30421672
Masood A Khan
Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from Nigella sativa, has lately been shown as a miracle drug because of it's a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases, including cancer, asthma, diabetes, colitis, infectious diseases etc. In the present review, we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanisms of therapeutic action of TQ. Many in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of TQ against a wide range of diseases. We extensively searched the literature of the therapeutic properties of TQ and its formulations from various online sources, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. TQ possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects by specifically targeting the NF-kB, IL-1β and TNF-α signaling pathways. The anticancer activity of TQ has been primarily shown by altering the expression of signal transducers and activator transcription (STAT3), PTEN and p53 genes. TQ alleviates the hyperglycemia-associated complications, the hepatic or renal ailments through its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Interestingly, the liposome- or nanoparticle-based TQ formulations have shown greater effectiveness against various diseases in animal models. Thus, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TQ action may lead to the development of its therapeutic formulations to cure of a wide variety of diseases.