Safety evaluation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by their absorption and elimination profiles.
J Toxicol Sci. 2008 Aug;33(3):293-8. PMID: 18670160
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama. firstname.lastname@example.org
If titanium dioxide nanoparticles are inert and non-biodegradable, they must be evaluated similarly to fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and asbestos. We surveyed the titanium level in typical raw food materials, and then intravenously injected titanium dioxide nanoparticles (primary particle diameter: 15 nm; secondary particle size: 220 nm) in mice and determined their tissue distribution and elimination. As a result, an unexpectedly high titanium concentration was observed in several foods. It was also detected in blood and tissues of healthy mice without administration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Then, forced i.v. injection of the nanoparticles was performed in mice. The titanim level was significantly increased in blood and tissues, but no increase was found in the brain after i.v. injection. Most titanium was concentrated in the liver after injection, but the liver level decreased over time (ca. 30% decrease in 1 month). These data show that titanium must be eliminated from the body, and suggest that we should reconsider an evaluation method for toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.