Tomato juice intake increases resting energy expenditure and improves hypertriglyceridemia in middle-aged women: an open-label, single-arm study.
Nutr J. 2015 Apr 8 ;14:34. Epub 2015 Apr 8. PMID: 25880734
BACKGROUND: Tomato-based food products have health-promoting and disease-preventing effects. Some tomato juice ingredients may have health benefits for middle-aged women, including women with menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the net effect of tomato juice intake on several health parameters in women in this age group.
METHODS: An open-label, single-arm study was conducted, involving 95 women (40-60-years-old) who had at least one menopausal symptom. The participants refrained from foods and drinks rich in tomato and tomato-based products for 2 weeks prior to the study and during the 8 weeks of tomato juice consumption. After the run-in period, the women were asked to consume 200 mL of unsalted tomato juice, twice daily for 8 weeks. Their menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Menopausal Symptom Scale (MSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) before the study, and at 4 and 8 weeks after study commencement. At the same times, body composition; blood pressure; heart rate; resting energy expenditures (REEs); and serum levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were measured.
RESULTS: Ninety-three women (98%) completed the study. The following parameters showed significant changes, compared with baseline, at study weeks 4 and 8 (mean ± standard deviation at baseline, week 4, and week 8): (1) the MSS score improved (9.9 ± 5.2, 8.5 ± 5.0, 8.3 ± 5.0; P < 0.0001, repeated measures analysis of variance(ANOVA)), (2) the HADS-anxiety subscale score improved (5.3 ± 2.7, 4.8 ± 2.4, 4.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.041, Friedman test), (3) heart rate increased (62.6 ± 9.4 bpm, 64.4 ± 8.6 bpm, 63.8 ± 8.2 bpm; P = 0.028, Friedman test), (4) REE increased (1980 ± 368 kcal/day, 2108 ± 440 kcal/day, 2149 ± 470 kcal/day; P = 0.0030, repeated measures ANOVA), (5) serum TG level decreased in the subgroup of women (n = 22) who had high TG (150 mg/dL or higher) at baseline (237.8 ± 88.9 mg/dL, 166.7 ± 86.1 mg/dL, 170.9 ± 109.7 mg/dL; P = 0.0002, Friedman test).
CONCLUSIONS: Tomato juice intake alleviated menopausal symptoms, including anxiety, increased REEs and heart rate, and lowered high baseline serum TG levels in middle-aged women.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR UMIN000011877 .