Protective Effects of Tormentic Acid, a Major Component of Suspension Cultures of Eriobotrya japonica Cells, on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.
Molecules. 2017 May 18 ;22(5). Epub 2017 May 18. PMID: 28524081
An acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and lead to fatal liver damage. The hepatoprotective effects of tormentic acid (TA) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage were investigated in mice. TA was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered for six days prior to APAP administration. Pretreatment with TA prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T-Bil), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and liver lipid peroxide levels in APAP-treated mice and markedly reduced APAP-induced histological alterations in liver tissues. Additionally, TA attenuated the APAP-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-6. Furthermore, the Western blot analysis showed that TA blocked the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as well as the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in APAP-injured liver tissues. TA also retained the superoxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in the liver. These results suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of TA may be related to its anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation. Antioxidative properties were also observed, as shown by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in the liver, and decreases in lipid peroxides and ROS. Therefore, TA may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.