Total flavonoids of Taraxacum mongolicum inhibit non-small cell lung cancer by regulating immune function.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Aug 9 ;281:114514. Epub 2021 Aug 9. PMID: 34384846
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. has been used in lung cancer treatment in Chinese medicine. However, its specific mechanism of action has not yet been reported, and developing pharmaceutical anti-cancer resources is important. Here, we aimed to elucidate the anti-tumor effects of dandelion in vitro and in vivo and assess its effects on immune function in lung cancer patients.
AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we mainly observed the therapeutic effects of total flavonoids from Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. (TFTM) on non-small cell lung cancer and its influence on the body's immune function.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro experiments on A549 and H1299 cells were performed using the CCK8 method; the proliferation and migration of cells were observed to investigate the wound healing effects of TFTM, and flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptotic rate of TFTM on lung cancer cells. In vivo experiments were preformed to establish a non-small cell lung cancer mouse model using subcutaneously transplanted Lewis cells, and the body weight and tumor growth of the mice were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for tumor tissue to assess pathological changes. The thymus, spleen, and lungs were isolated for to calculate organ index. The CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8levels were detected in mouse spleen using flow cytometry, and IL-2, IL-3, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels were determined in serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of IL-2, IL-3, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected using quantitative real-time PCR in tumor tissues, and Ki67 expression was observed by immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: At 24 h, TFTM (100 and 200 μg/mL) had the best inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 and H1299 cells. The cell migration rate significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and the tumor inhibition rate increased (P < 0.01) and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.01). The mouse thymus index significantly increased (P < 0.05) and mouse spleen index reduced (P < 0.05). The CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8levels in Lewis lung cancer mouse model increased, as did the levels of IL-2, IL-3, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the serum and tumor of mice; Ki67 expression in tumor tissues significantly reduced (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: TFTM has an inhibitory effect on lung cancer. The mechanism may be that it improves the host's protective immune response by having a milder tumor growth inhibitory effect than cyclophosphamide.