Toxic effect of fluorene-9-bisphenol to green algae Chlorella vulgaris and its metabolic fate.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Mar 30 ;216:112158. Epub 2021 Mar 30. PMID: 33798865
Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF), a bisphenol A (BPA) alternative, has recently attracted attention due to its wide use and potential toxicity. However, the toxic effects and fate of BHPF in freshwater algae remains to be elucidated. In this study, the impact of BHPF on Chlorella vulgaris was explored and the removal and bioaccumulation of BHPF by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that C. vulgaris was sensitive to BHPF at the concentration of>1 mg L, and lipid peroxidation was significantly increased under the exposure of>0.1 mg BHPF L. An oxidative stress was caused by BHPF, as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly decreased in algal cells by>0.5 mg BHPF L. The removal rate of BHPF was significantly enhanced by the addition of algae. In addition, the increasing accumulation of BHPF in algae at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5 mg Lwas observed and may contribute for the increased toxicity of BHPF to C. vulgaris. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) results demonstrated that three metabolites of BHPF were identified in algal cells, which may pose an unexpected effect in aquatic environment.