Triggering of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by fennel and clove oils in Caco-2 cells: the role of combination.
Toxicol Mech Methods. 2019 Nov ;29(9):710-722. Epub 2019 Aug 20. PMID: 31364915
Islam M El-Garawani
Fennel () and clove () oils are known for their various biological effects, including anticancer properties.To investigate the anticancer effect of combined fennel and clove oil treatment on Caco-2 cells and normal human lymphocytes (NHL).GC-MS,cytotoxicity, morphological, apoptosis-related marker, and flow cytometric cell cycle distribution analyses were conducted.Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in fennel oil, including-anethole (68.3%) and (+)-fenchone (8.1%). In clove oil, 22 compounds, including eugenol (71.4%) and caryophyllene (8.7%), were identified. ICof the fennel, clove, and oil mixture were 300 ± 5.0, 150 ± 4.0, and 73 ± 2.5 µg/mL, respectively with combination index (CI) < 1.0. Mechanistic anticancer properties were investigated using 30, 45, and 60 µg/mL oil mixture. Analysis of apoptotic morphology, flow cytometric cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis-related markers, such as Bcl-2 and Ki-67, confirmed cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in Caco-2 cells by the fennel and clove oil combination. Moreover, the oil mixture did not exert significant ( < 0.01) toxicity on NHLThe oil mixture exerted selective cytotoxicity towards Caco-2 cells through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which may occur through synergistic effects between fennel and clove oil active ingredients.