The effect of Zataria multiflora on inflammatory cytokine and respiratory symptoms in veterans exposed to sulfur mustard.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20. PMID: 32314290
Mohammad Reza Khazdair
The effect of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) on serum cytokine, chemokines, and respiratory symptoms in the veterans exposed to sulfur mustard (SM) more than two decades (27-30 years) ago was conducted in 2018. Thirty-four patients were randomly assigned to the placebo group (P, mean age (54.40 ± 5.51)) and two treated groups with Z. multiflora extract 5 and 10 mg/kg/day (Z5 and 10; mean age, 58.50 ± 3.60 and 55.18 ± 4.11, respectively). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV), and respiratory symptoms including chest wheeze (CW), night wheeze (NW), night cough (NC), and cough and wheeze during exercise (ECW) were assessed at the baseline (phase 0), 1 and 2 months after starting treatment (phase I and II, respectively). The value of FEVwas significantly increased in Z10 in phase I and II compared with that in phase 0 (p < 0.01 for both) and in Z5 in phase II compared with phase I and 0 (p < 0.001for both). All respiratory symptoms significantly decreased in Z5 and 10 in phase I and II compared with those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Serum levels of TNF-α and VEGF were decreased in Z5 and 10 in phase I and II compared with those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Serum levels of MCP-1 and EGF were decreased in Z10 in phase I and II compared with those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The percent change of respiratory symptoms, serum levels of cytokines during the treatment period, was significantly improved in the treated groups compared with that in the placebo group. Two months' of treatment with Z. multiflora improved cytokine levels, respiratory symptom, and FEVvalues in SM-exposed patients.