Inflammation and Gut-Brain Axis During Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on the Crosstalk Between Intestinal Immune Cells and Enteric Nervous System.
Front Neurosci. 2018 ;12:725. Epub 2018 Oct 10. PMID: 30364179
The gut-brain axis is now considered as a major actor in the control of glycemia. Recent discoveries show that the enteric nervous system (ENS) informs the hypothalamus of the nutritional state in order to control glucose entry in tissues. During type 2 diabetes (T2D), this way of communication is completely disturbed leading to the establishment of hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance. Indeed, the ENS neurons are largely targeted by nutrients (e.g., lipids, peptides) but also by inflammatory factors from different origin (i.e., host cells and gut microbiota). Inflammation, and more particularly in the intestine, contributes to the development of numerous pathologies such as intestinal bowel diseases, Parkinson diseases and T2D. Therefore, targeting the couple ENS/inflammation could represent an attractive therapeutic solution to treat metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of the crosstalk between intestinal immune cells and ENS neurons in the control of glycemia. In addition, given the growing evidence showing the key role of the gut microbiota in physiology, we will also briefly discuss its potential contribution and role on the immune and neuronal systems.