Uricosuric and nephroprotective properties of Ramulus Mori ethanol extract in hyperuricemic mice.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Oct 11 ;143(3):896-904. Epub 2012 Aug 29. PMID: 22967667
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ramulus Mori, the branch of Morus alba, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions to treat gout and hyperuricemia.
AIM OF THIS STUDY: To evaluate the uricosuric and nephroprotective effects of ethanol extract of Ramulus Mori (ERM) and explore its possible mechanisms in hyperuricemic mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPLC analysis was employed to determine the main constituents. Hyperuricemia was induced by potassium oxonate (250 mg/kg) in male mice. ERM (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) was orally administered to hyperuricemic and normal mice for 7 days. Serum and urine levels of uric acid, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Simultaneously, renal mRNA and protein levels of mouse urate transporter 1 (mURAT1), glucose transporter 9 (mGLUT9), organic anion transporter 1 (mOAT1) and organic cation/carnitine transporters (mOCT1/2, mOCTN1/2) were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting methods.
RESULTS: ERM mainly contained mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, resveratrol, 7-hydroxycumarin and morin. ERM significantly reduced serum urate levels and increased 24h-urine urate excretion and fractional excretion of uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. It effectively restored oxonate-induced expression alteration of renal mURAT1, mGLUT9 and mOAT1, resulting in urate excretion enhancement. Moreover, ERM decreased serum creatinine and BUN levels and increased creatinine clearance, and up-regulated expression of mOCT1/2 and mOCTN1/2, contributing to kidney function improvement in this model.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ERM exerts the uricosuric and nephroprotective actions by the regulation of these renal organic ion transporters in hyperuricemic mice, and provide scientific support for the empirical use of Ramulus Mori.