The use of aluminum utensils for cooking meals is associated with chronic aluminum toxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Relationship between the Use of Aluminium Utensils for Cooking Meals and Chronic Aluminum Toxicity in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Case Control Study.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2019 Apr ;67(4):52-56. PMID: 31309799
Background: Chronic aluminum toxicity (CAT) in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients is now a rare clinical disorder, unlike in the past, because of improvements in hemodialysis water purification systems and discontinuation of use of aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binder. The use of aluminum utensils for cooking could be an unrecognised cause of the CAT.
Objective: To assess the association between aluminum kitchen utensils used for cooking meals and chronic aluminum toxicity (CAT) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).
Material and Methods: In this case control study, a total of 31 (cases n=10; controls n=21) patients on MHD for more than one year were included. Cases were defined as patients with clinical manifestations (including laboratory parameters) of CAT and high (>200 mcg/L) serum aluminum levels. Control group was chosen from the same hemodialysis facilities. Association between use of aluminum utensils for cooking and occurrence of CAT was assessed.
Results: The mean age of patients in the cases and the control group was 52.90 and 52.95 years respectively with on significant difference (p=0.99). There was no difference in mean duration of dialysis (p=0.78), serum calcium level (p=0.06), serum phosphate level (p=0.19), serum albumin level (p=0.06), history of hypertension (p=1.00) and history of diabetes (n=0.12) between two groups. Mean haemoglobin (p<0.05) and mean iPTH (p<0.05) was significantly lower in the cases as compared to control group. Thirteen patients had history of use of aluminum utensils [cases 10 (76.90%) and control 3 (23.10%); p<0.05]. All cases i.e. 10 (100%) had exposure to aluminum utensils whereas three (14.3%) patients in the control group had exposure to aluminum utensils whereas 18 (85.7%) patients had no exposure. The relative risk of having CAT because of use of aluminum utensils compared to not using was 28.46 (1.81 to 445.3) and the odd's ratio estimated was 120 (5.45 to 2642).
Conclusion: Use of aluminum utensils for cooking meals is associated with CAT. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings.