Effect of natural or vaccine-induced porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) immunity on fetal infection after artificial insemination with PCV2 spiked semen.
Theriogenology. 2009 Oct 1;72(6):747-54. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PMID: 19559470
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
The objectives of this study were to determine if vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) or previous PCV2 infection of the dam are sufficient to prevent fetal infection when dams are artificially inseminated with PCV2-spiked semen. Nine sows (Sus domestica) were allocated into three groups of three dams each: The PCV2 naïve negative control Group 1 was artificially inseminated with extended PCV2 DNA negative semen during estrus, whereas the extended semen used in the vaccinated Group 2 (PCV2 vaccine was given 8 wk before insemination) and PCV2-exposed Group 3 (infected with PCV2 12 wk before insemination) was spiked with 5 mL of PCV2 inoculum with a titer of 10(4.2) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50)) per milliliter at each breeding. The dams in the vaccinated and PCV2-exposed groups were positive for PCV2 antibody but negative for PCV2 DNA in serum at the time of insemination. Three negative control dams, two vaccinated dams, and three dams with previous PCV2 exposure became pregnant and maintained pregnancy to term. After artificial insemination, viremia was detected in one of three vaccinated dams and in two of three dams with previous PCV2 exposure. At farrowing, PCV2 infection was not detected in any piglets or fetuses expelled from the negative control dams or from dams with previous PCV2 exposure. In litters of the vaccinated dams, 15 of 24 live-born piglets were PCV2 viremic at birth, with 6 of 26 fetuses having detectable PCV2 antigen in tissues. In conclusion, vaccine-induced immunity did not prevent fetal infection in this sow model using semen spiked with PCV2.