Vanillin extracted from Proso and Barnyard millets induce apoptotic cell death in HT-29 human colon cancer cell line.
Nutr Cancer. 2019 Oct 11:1-16. Epub 2019 Oct 11. PMID: 31604383
Deepa Priya Ramadoss
In the present study, we hypothesized that the active compound extracted from Proso and Barnyard millets inhibits cell proliferation and apoptosis induction in colon cancer cell line. The bioactive compounds from these millets were purified by supercritical fluid extraction and their structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Extracted bioactive components from these millets were similar in chemical structure to the phenolic aldehyde-Vanillin [4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde]. Cell proliferative effect was assessed by MTT assay using HT-29 cell line. Compound 1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells when treated with concentrations of 250 µg/ml and 1,000 µg/ml for 48 h, while compound 2 moderately inhibited the proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at the same concentration and time period. Cytotoxic activity of extracted compounds by the release of lactate dehydrogenase confirms that these compounds were not toxic to the cells at 250 µg/ml of compounds 1 and 2. In addition, flow cytometry results show a significant cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase and increase in the apoptotic cells in sub G0 phase, in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. The conclusion of this study suggests that the anticancer property of these millets is mediated through the presence of vanillin.