Modulation of multidrug resistance and apoptosis of cancer cells by selected carotenoids.
In Vivo. 2004 Mar-Apr;18(2):237-44. PMID: 15113052
The multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins that belong to the ATP-binding casette superfamily are present in a majority of human tumors and are an important final cause of therapeutic failure. Therefore, compounds which inhibit the function of the MDR-efflux proteins may improve the cytotoxic action of anticancer chemotherapy. The effects of carotenoids were studied on the activity of the MDR-1 gene-encoded efflux pump system. The carotenoids, isolated from paprika and other vegetables, were tested on the rhodamine 123 accumulation of human MDR-1 gene-transfected L1210 mouse lymphoma cells and human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 (HTB-26). Capsanthin and capsorubin enhanced the rhodamine 123 accumulation 30-fold relative to nontreated lymphoma cells. Lycopene, lutein, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin had moderate effects, while alfa- and beta-carotene had no effect on the reversal of MDR in the tumor cells. Apoptosis was induced in human MDR1 transfected mouse lymphoma cells and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (HTB-26) cell lines in the presence of lycopene, zeaxanthin and capsanthin. The data suggest the potential of carotenoids as possible resistance modifiers in cancer chemotherapy.