Vascular effects of combined enriched Korean Red ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius) administration in individuals with hypertension and type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.
Complement Ther Med. 2020 Mar ;49:102338. Epub 2020 Feb 12. PMID: 32147072
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is known to abrogate the vascular response. Combination of two commonly consumed ginseng species, American ginseng (AG) and a Korean Red ginseng (KRG), enriched with ginsensoide Rg3, was shown to concomitantly improve glucemic control and blood pressure. We evaluated the hypothesis that improvements in central hemodynamics, vascular function and stiffness markers are involved in observed benefits of co-administration.
METHODS: In this randomized, placebo controlled, two-center trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension were assigned to either 2.25 g ginsenoside Rg3-enriched KRG&AG co-administration or a control 3 times daily for 12-weeks, treated by standard of care. The effects on central hemodynamics, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and endothelial function over the 12-week administration were analyzed.
RESULTS: In intent-to-treat analysis of 80 individuals, a reduction in central systolic BP (-4.69 ± 2.24 mmHg, p = 0.04) was observed with co-administration of Rg3-KRG + AG relative to control at 12-weeks, which was characterized by a decrease in end-systolic pressure (-6.60 ± 2.5 mmHg, p = 0.01) and area under the systolic/diastolic BP curve (-132.80 ± 65.1, p = 0.04, 220.90 ± 91.1, p = 0.02, respectively). There was no significant change in reactive hyperemia index (0.09 ± 0.11, p = 0.44), PWV (-0.40 ± 0.28 %, p = 0.17), and other related pulse wave analysis components.
CONCLUSION: Co-administration of complementary ginseng species improved central systolic BP and components of pulse waveform without a direct effect on endothelial function, when added to background pharmacotherapy in individuals with diabetes. These data support potential utility of ginseng for modest blood pressure benefit to broaden its role in diabetes management.