Dietary interventions in blood pressure lowering: current evidence in 2020.
Kardiol Pol. 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30. PMID: 32631027
Nutrition modification is one of the cornerstones of arterial hypertension (AH) treatment. Current American and European guidelines recommend to ingest fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products, and decrease the consumption of red meat, sugar, and trans fats. The aim of our review is to summarize the available evidence on the topic of dietary patterns associated with lower blood pressure (BP). Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is able to lower BP equally or even more significantly than some antihypertensive drugs. The Mediterranean diet also leads to the significant reduction in BP. Vegans and vegetarians are showed to have a lower prevalence of AH than omnivores. Caloric restriction may decrease BP in normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive populations. BP can also be lowered by certain nutraceuticals (beetroot juice, magnesium, vitamin C, catechin-rich beverages, soy isoflavones etc). Conclusions. Diet effects on BP are mediated by the decrease of body weight, amelioration of inflammation, increase of insulin sensitivity, and antihypertensive effects of some single nutrients. Vegetarian and vegan diets have robust evidence proving their ability to reduce BP. The existence of floor effect makes these diets usable for normo- and prehypertensive people with high risk of developing AH. The dietary and nutraceutical approach to the BP lowering never has to substitute the drug treatment when the latter is needed.