The impact of electromagnetic radiation (2.45 GHz, Wi-Fi) on the female reproductive system: The role of vitamin C.
Toxicol Ind Health. 2018 Jan 1:748233718775540. Epub 2018 Jan 1. PMID: 29848237
The present study investigated the effects of applied continuous 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR), which might cause physiopathological or morphological changes in the ovarian, fallopian tubal, and uterine tissues of rats. We proposed that the addition of vitamin C (Vit C) may reduce these severe effects. Eighteen female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups with six animals in each: Sham, EMR (EMR, 1 h/day for 30 days), and EMR + Vit C (EMR, 1 h/day for 30 days 250 mg/kg/daily). Total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels increased ( p = 0.011 and p = 0.002, respectively) in the EMR-only group in ovarian tissues. In all tissues, TOS and OSI levels significantly decreased in the Vit C-treated group in ovarian, fallopian tubal, and uterine tissues ( p<0.05). Anti-müllerian hormone levels significantly increased in the EMR group ( p<0.05) and decreased in the Vit C-treated groups. Estrogen (E2) levels were unchanged in the EMR group, as the differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical examination of the ovaries revealed significant increases in Caspase-3 expressions in the epithelial cells of the EMR group ( p<0.05). In the EMR group, hyperemia was observed in uterine tissues. Also, Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 were significantly increased in the EMR group ( p<0.001). Caspase-3 was significantly diminished with Vit C application in the ovarian and uterine tissues ( p<0.05). Caspase-8 was significantly diminished only in uterine tissues ( p<0.05). These results indicate that prolonged EMR exposure induced physiopathological changes in the ovarian, fallopian tubal, and uterine tissues due to oxidative damage. Under the conditions of this study, Vit C may have protective effects on female reproductive system against oxidative damage.