Vitamin D Status and Long-Term Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Secondary Data Analysis from a Prospective Cohort.
PLoS One. 2016 ;11(7):e0158536. Epub 2016 Jul 1. PMID: 27367810
Jan C Holter
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D status has been associated with short-term (30-day) mortality in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data on its prevalence in these patients are scarce, and impact on long-term prognosis is unknown. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy and their effect on long-term mortality in hospitalized adults with CAP.
METHODS: Secondary follow-up analysis of data from a prospectively recruited (January 2008-January 2011) well-defined cohort of 241 hospital survivors of CAP (Norway, latitude 60°N). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were measured within 48 hours of admission. The etiology of CAP was established in 63% of patients through extensive microbiological investigations. Mortality data were obtained from the national Cause of Death Registry. Explanatory strategy and Cox regression models were used to explore the association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality.
RESULTS: Median age was 66 years. Eighty-seven (36%) patients were vitamin D deficient (<30 nmol/L), 81 (34%) were inadequate (30-49 nmol/L), and 73 (30%) were sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Seventy-two patients died over a median of 1839 days (range 1-2520 days), corresponding to cumulative 5-year survival rates of 66.2% (95% CI 56.2-76.2%), 77.0% (67.6-86.4%), and 77.8% (67.8-87.8%) for vitamin D deficient, inadequate, and sufficient patients, respectively. After adjusting for confounders (age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunocompromization and season), vitamin D deficiency, but not inadequacy, was significantly associated with higher mortality compared to patients with sufficiency (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.06-3.45; P = .031).
CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy among hospitalized adults with CAP. The results of this study also suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of mortality way beyond the short-term in these patients.