Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates disease pathophysiology in the G93A mouse model of ALS. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Dietary Vitamin D3 Restriction Exacerbates Disease Pathophysiology in the Spinal Cord of the G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
PLoS One. 2015 ;10(5):e0126355. Epub 2015 May 28. PMID: 26020962
BACKGROUND: Dietary vitamin D3 (D3) restriction reduces paw grip endurance and motor performance in G93A mice, and increases inflammation and apoptosis in the quadríceps of females. ALS, a neuromuscular disease, causes progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord.
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the spinal cords of G93A mice following dietary D3 restriction at 2.5% the adequate intake (AI) for oxidative damage (4-HNE, 3-NY), antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, catalase, GPx1), inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10), apoptosis (bax/bcl-2 ratio, cleaved/pro-caspase 3 ratio), neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neuron count (ChAT, SMI-36/SMI-32 ratio).
METHODS: Beginning at age 25 d, 42 G93A mice were provided food ad libitum with either adequate (AI;1 IU D3/g feed; 12 M, 11 F) or deficient (DEF; 0.025 IU D3/g feed; 10 M, 9 F) D3. At age 113 d, the spinal cords were analyzed for protein content. Differences were considered significant at P≤ 0.10, since this was a pilot study.
RESULTS: DEF mice had 16% higher 4-HNE (P = 0.056), 12% higher GPx1 (P = 0.057) and 23% higher Bax/Bcl2 ratio (P = 0.076) vs. AI. DEF females had 29% higher GPx1 (P = 0.001) and 22% higher IL-6 (P = 0.077) vs. AI females. DEF males had 23% higher 4-HNE (P = 0.066) and 18% lower SOD2 (P = 0.034) vs. AI males. DEF males had 27% lower SOD2 (P = 0.004), 17% lower GPx1 (P = 0.070), 29% lower IL-6 (P = 0.023) and 22% lower ChAT (P = 0.082) vs. DEF females.
CONCLUSION: D3 deficiency exacerbates disease pathophysiology in the spinal cord of G93A mice, the exact mechanisms are sex-specific. This is in accord with our previous results in the quadriceps, as well as functional and disease outcomes.