Vitamin D protects against oxidative stress, inflammation and hepatorenal damage induced by acute paracetamol toxicity in rat.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Jun 27. Epub 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31255668
Acute paracetamol (APAP) toxicity is a leading cause of liver, and less commonly renal, injuries through oxidative stress and inflammation. Albeit vitamin D (VD) is a well-known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory hormone, there is no report on its potential protective/therapeutic actions against APAP acute toxicity. This study, therefore, measured the interplay between APAP toxicity and the hepatorenal expressions of the VD-metabolising enzymes (Cyp2R1, Cyp27b1&cyp24a1), receptor (VDR) and binding protein (VDBP) alongside the effects of VD treatment on APAP-induced hepatorenal injuries. Thirty-two male rats were distributed equally into negative (NC) and positive (PC) controls besides VD prophylactic (P-VD) and therapeutic (T-VD) groups. All groups, except the NC, received a single oral dose of APAP (1200 mg/kg). The P-VD also received by intraperitoneal injection two cycles of VD(1000 IU/Kg/day; 5 days/week) prior to, and a third round after, APAP administration. Similarly, the T-VD group received VD(3,000 IU/Kg/day) for five successive days post-APAP intoxication. Euthanasia was on the sixth day post-APAP toxicity. The PC group had marked alterations in the hepatorenal biochemical parameters, upregulation in cellular cleaved caspase-3 as well as pronounced increase in the numbers of apoptotic/necrotic cells by TUNEL technique. The PC group plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH VD) also declined markedly and coincided with significant inhibitions in the expression of Cyp2R1 and Cyp27b1 enzymes and VDR, whereas the VDBP and Cyp24a1 increased substantially, in the hepatorenal tissues at the gene and protein levels compared with the NC group. Coherently, the lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL17A, IFN-γ&TNF-α) augmented significantly, while the anti-oxidative markers (GSH, GPx&CAT) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10&IL22) diminished substantially, in the PC hepatorenal tissues. Both VD regimens alleviated the APAP-induced hepatorenal damages and restored the 25-OH VD levels together with the hepatorenal expression of Cyp2R1, Cyp27b1, Cyp24a1, VDR and VDBP. Additionally, MDA and all the targeted pro-inflammatory cytokines declined, whereas all the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory markers increased, in both VD groups hepatorenal tissues and the results were significantly different than the PC group. Although the P-VD anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress actions were more pronounced than the T-VD group, the results remained markedly abnormal than the NC group. In conclusion, this report is the first to reveal that the circulatory VD levels alongside the hepatorenal VD-metabolising enzymes and VDR are pathologically altered following acute APAP toxicity. Moreover, the prophylactic protocol showed better anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects than the therapeutic regimen against APAP-induced hepatorenal injuries.