Association of antepartum vitamin D deficiency with postpartum depression: a clinical perspective.
Public Health Nutr. 2019 Jan 18:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 18. PMID: 30657106
Mercedes J Szpunar
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression affects up to 20 % of new mothers within the first 12 months of parturition. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has known importance in bone health, but it may also play an important role in other functions, including reproduction and fertility, immune function and mental health. This clinical commentary reviews literature evaluating 25(OH)D deficiency during pregnancy and the incidence of postpartum depressive symptomatology.
DESIGN: Narrative review, summary and recommendations.Setting/ParticipantsA literature search revealed five relevant studies of antepartum women, three based in the USA, one in Turkey and one in Iran.
RESULTS: Three of the five studies measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations during the first or second trimester and discovered an association with 25(OH)D deficiency and depressive symptoms postpartum. One study determined an almost significant (P=0·058) inverse relationship with first-trimester 25(OH)D concentration and depressive symptoms postpartum, and the last study, which was a secondary analysis, did not find an association.
CONCLUSIONS: The Endocrine Society recommends routine vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation due to increased metabolic demand in the mother, but a recent Cochrane review recommended against screening. Vitamin D should be the target of more studies during pregnancy and the postpartum period since it appears to have an important role for both medical and mental health. Vitamin D supplementation is a relatively safe and cost-effective intervention during pregnancy, and it may prove to be important in the prevention of postpartum depression.