Vitamin K deficiency leads to exacerbation of murine dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.
J Gastroenterol. 2015 Aug 28. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PMID: 26314836
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often exhibit vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K has been shown to inhibit inflammation via interleukin (IL)-6 suppression. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin K in a murine model of colitis.
METHODS: Colitis was induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice fed either a vitamin K-deficient (K-def) or a vitamin K-supplemented (K-sup) diet. The clinical and histological severity of colitis was assessed, and levels of cytokine production from the spleen and colonic lamina propria were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cytokine expression levels in CD4(+), CD11b(+), and CD19(+) cells in the presence and absence of vitamin K [menatetrenone (MK-4)] were measured in vitro and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3/7 activity and Annexin V staining.
RESULTS: DSS administration resulted in significantly more severe body weight loss, shorter colon length, and higher histological scores in mice fed a K-def diet than those fed a K-sup diet. IL-6 expression in lamina propria mononuclear cells was significantly higher in the K-def group than in the K-sup group. IL-6 expression was significantly decreased in the presence of MK-4 in CD19(+) cells, but not in the CD4(+) and CD11b(+) subpopulations. Apoptotic cell population in CD19(+) cells was increased in the presence of MK-4 in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K exerts a protective effect against DSS colitis; this effect is associated with IL-6 downregulation. Vitamin K could be a potential treatment target for IBD.