Vitamin K3 induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The potential of vitamin K3 as an anticancer agent against breast cancer that acts via the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 May 16; PMID: 19449007
PURPOSE: We tried to clarify the cytotoxic mechanism of VK(3) using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was measured via intracellular esterase activity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. JC-1 staining was applied to measure mitochondrial dysfunction. Caspase activation and reactive oxidative species (ROS) generation were also measured. RESULTS: VK(3) exhibited cytotoxicity that caused DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells with an IC(50) of 14.2 muM. JC-1 staining revealed that VK(3) caused mitochondrial dysfunction including a disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additional investigation showed that the mitochondrial damage was induced by the generation of ROS and the subsequent activation of caspase-7 and -9. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that VK(3)-induced apoptosis is selectively initiated by the mitochondria-related pathway and might be useful in breast cancer chemotherapy.