In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Nobiletin on DRG Neurite Elongation and Axon Growth after Sciatic Nerve Injury.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Aug 26 ;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26. PMID: 34501579
Sciatic nerve injury (SNI) leads to sensory and motor dysfunctions. Nobiletin is a major component of polymethoxylated flavonoid extracted from citrus fruits. The role of nobiletin on sciatic nerve regeneration is still unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether nobiletin increases DRG neurite elongation and regeneration-related protein expression after SNI. Cytotoxicity of nobiletin was measured in a concentration-dependent manner using the MTT assay. For an in vitro primary cell culture, the sciatic nerve on the middle thigh was crushed by holding twice with forceps. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and Schwann cells were cultured 3 days after SNI and harvested 36 h later and 3 days later, respectively. In order to evaluate specific regeneration-related markers and axon growth in the injured sciatic nerve, we applied immunofluorescence staining and Western blot techniques. Nobiletin increased cell viability in human neuroblastoma cells and inhibited cytotoxicity induced by exposure to HO. Mean neurite length of DRG neurons was significantly increased in the nobiletin group at a dose of 50 and 100μM compared to those at other concentrations. GAP-43, a specific marker for axonal regeneration, was enhanced in injury preconditioned Schwann cells with nobiletin treatment and nobiletin significantly upregulated it in injured sciatic nerve at only 3 days post crush (dpc). In addition, nobiletin dramatically facilitated axonal regrowth via activation of the BDNF-ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. These results should provide evidence to distinguish more accurately the biochemical mechanisms regarding nobiletin-activated sciatic nerve regeneration.