In Vitro Digested Nut Oils Attenuate the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in Macrophages.
Nutrients. 2019 Feb 27 ;11(3). Epub 2019 Feb 27. PMID: 30818812
Anke Katharina Müller
Nut consumption is known for its health benefits, in particular in inflammatory diseases. A possible mechanism for these effects could be their beneficial fatty acid composition. Nuts mainly contain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory properties. However, studies investigating the effects of nut extracts on inflammatory processes on the molecular level are rare. We therefore prepared oily nut extracts after in vitro digestion and saponification of the fat-soluble constituents. Besides chromatographic analysis, cell culture experiments were performed using murine macrophages (RAW264.7) to study the capacity of different nut extracts (hazelnut, almond, walnut, macadamia, and pistachio) to modulate inflammatory processes. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid in hazelnut, almond, macadamia, and pistachio extracts. Both oily nut extracts and pure oleic acid significantly reduced the LPS-induced expression of iNos, Cox2, Tnfα, Il1β, and Il6 mRNAs. iNos protein expression was down-regulated followed by reduced nitric oxide formation. Thus, nut extracts at concentrations achievable in the digestive tract inhibit the expression and formation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Hence, a beneficial contribution of nut consumption to inflammatory diseases can be assumed. We are convinced that these results provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms involved in the health-beneficial effects of nuts.