Prevention of Oxidative Stress byα-Ketoglutarate via Activation of CAR Signaling and Modulation of the Expression of Key Antioxidant-Associated Targets in Vivo and in Vitro.
J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Oct 31 ;66(43):11273-11283. Epub 2018 Oct 22. PMID: 30346763
α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) can act as an antioxidant both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms of the protective effects of AKG are still not well understood. We evaluated the effects of AKG supplementation on the regulation of the constitutive-androstane-receptor (CAR) pathway in porcine intestinal cells and piglets exposed to HO. Our data showed that AKG treatment significantly increased not only the intra- and extracellular levels of AKG (26.9± 1.31 μmol/g protein, 1064.4 ± 39.80 μmol/L medium) but also those of Asp (29.3 ± 0.21 μmol/g, 4.20 ± 0.11 μmol/L), Gln (24.82 ± 1.50 μmol/g, 1087.80 ± 16.10 μmol/L), and Glu (91.90 ± 3.6 μmol/g, 19.76 ± 1.00 μmol/L). There was approximately a 4-fold increase in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase mRNA levels in enterocytes and a simultaneous reduction in ROS levels ( P<0.05). Moreover, AKG treatment increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the efficiency of cellular respiration ( P<0.05). AKG also regulated the mRNA levels of the target genes involved in antioxidant responses and xenobiotic detoxification in enterocytes. Increases in the protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAR, RXRα, and UCP2 and marked reductions in the expression levels of Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins ( P<0.05) were observed after AKG administration in the HO-induced piglets. Our results indicated that AKG may protect against oxidative stress by activating CAR signaling and modulating the expression of key antioxidant-related targets, which improves cellular respiration and antioxidant capacity. The in vivo and in vitro effects of AKG suggest that it may prove to be useful in the reduction of oxidative stress in animal and human trials and subsequent prevention of gastrointestinal pathologies.