In vivo protective effects of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against hydrogen peroxide toxicity: cytogenetic and biochemical evaluation.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Dec 14. Epub 2019 Dec 14. PMID: 31838678
In this study, the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) against toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide (HO) in Swiss albino mice were investigated. Abnormal metaphase number (AMn), mitotic index (MI), micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) were analyzed for cytogenetic effects. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver and kidney organs were investigated as indicators of biochemical toxicity. Six experimental groups were formed as a control and treatment group, each containing six animals. The mice in the control group were given tap water, while the mice in the administration group received two different doses of GbE and HOfor 45 consecutive days. It was observed that HOadministration caused a significant decrease in MI compared to the control group and caused a significant decrease in the frequency of AMn, MN, and CAs. Chromatid break was the most common type of CAs induced by HO, and the other CAs types observed in this study were chromosome break, fragment, dicentric, gap, and ring. It has been determined that GbE treatment decreases the clastogenic effects of HOand reduces the MN and CAs frequency and causes a re-increase in mitotic cell numbers. It was determined that HOadministration caused changes in biochemical parameters and resulted in significant increases in serum AST, ALP, ALT, BUN, and creatinine levels. However, the level of MDA, which is an indicator of oxidative damage, increased, and GSH level decreased in liver and kidney tissues. Oxidative damage caused by HOin liver and kidney tissues was improved, and all biochemical parameters tested were found to be ameliorated after GbE treatment. This improvement was dependent on the dose of GbE, and improvement in 150 mg/kg bw GbE was found to be more prominent. As a result, the GbE can be used as an antioxidant nutritional supplement to protect against the toxic effects of environmental agents such as HO.