In Vitro and in Vivo Neuroprotective Effects of Walnut (Juglandis Semen) in Models of Parkinson's Disease.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016 ;17(1). Epub 2016 Jan 15. PMID: 26784178
Jin Gyu Choi
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of monoamines including dopamine (DA). MAO expression is elevated in Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in MAO activity is closely related to age, and this may induce neuronal degeneration in the brain due to oxidative stress. MAO (and particularly monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B)) participates in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide that are toxic to dopaminergic cells and their surroundings. Although the polyphenol-rich aqueous walnut extract (JSE; an extract of Juglandis Semen) has been shown to have various beneficial bioactivities, no study has been dedicated to see if JSE is capable to protect dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxic insults in models of PD. In the present study we investigated the neuroprotective potential of JSE against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP⁺)- or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicities in primary mesencephalic cells and in a mouse model of PD. Here we show that JSE treatment suppressed ROS and nitric oxide productions triggered by MPP⁺ in primary mesencephalic cells. JSE also inhibited depletionof striatal DA and its metabolites in vivo that resulted in significant improvement in PD-like movement impairment. Altogether our results indicate that JSE has neuroprotective effects in PD models and may have potential for the prevention or treatment of PD.