In vitro-fermented raw and roasted walnuts induce expression of CAT and GSTT2 genes, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in LT97 colon adenoma cells.
Nutr Res. 2017 Nov ;47:72-80. Epub 2017 Sep 18. PMID: 29241580
Walnuts are rich in bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and dietary fiber. Therefore, the consumption of walnuts can contribute to a healthy diet and may reduce the risk for colon cancer. Heat treatment like roasting may change the chemical composition of walnuts and therefore their chemopreventive properties. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study is that different roasting conditions (RCs) alter the chemopreventive effects of walnuts. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether different RCs (RC1=139.7°C/25 min, RC2=154.5°C/20 min, and RC3=185.5°C/25 min) alter the chemopreventive effects of walnuts. Raw and roasted walnuts were subjected to in vitro digestion and fermentation. After treatment of LT97 colon adenoma cells with fermentation supernatants (FSs), expression of CAT, SOD2, GPx1, GSTP1, and GSTT2 genes as well as cell growth and apoptosis was examined. In comparison to the fermentation blank control, walnut FS particularly increased mRNA levels of CAT 1.7-fold and GSTT2 3.1-fold, whereas GPx1 levels were significantly decreased 0.6-fold. Walnut FS decreased growth of adenoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In particular, higher concentrations of walnut FS (5%) significantly increased the number of early apoptotic cells 2.0-fold and induced caspase-3 activity 6.8-fold compared with the blank control. The roasting process had no direct impact on the observed effects. In sum, our results indicate that walnuts exhibit chemopreventive effects regarding the risk for colon cancer development by inducing expression of genes involved in detoxification (CAT, GSTT2) and by inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis in colon adenoma cells unaffected by moderate roasting.