Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extracts on In Vitro Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells and Ex Vivo Porcine Colonic Tissue Explants.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 5 ;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 5. PMID: 30841512
The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE) prepared from waste material of pomegranate juice production both in vitro on Caco-2 cells and ex vivo using porcine colonic tissue explants. Caco-2 cells were stimulated in vitro by TNF and colonic tissue explants were stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both tissues were co-treated with PPE at 0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 25μg/mL. The secretion of CXCL8 in the supernatant of both experiments was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the relative expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in the colonic tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). The 2.5 to 25 μg/mL of PPE suppressed CXCL8 (<0.001) in the Caco-2 cells, whereas CXCL8 production was suppressed by only 5 and 25μg/mL (<0.01) of PPE in the colonic explants. The 5μg/mL of PPE also suppressed the expression of(<0.05),(<0.01) and(<0.05) in LPS challenged colonic tissues compared to controls. In conclusion, the 5μg/mL of PPE consistently elicits strong anti-inflammatory activity. These results support the potential of bioactive compounds from the waste peel of pomegranate in terms of their anti-inflammatory activity in cells and tissues of the gastrointestinal tract.