Mammary ductal epithelial cell hyperproliferation and hyperplasia induced by a nutritional stress diet containing four components of a western-style diet.
Carcinogenesis. 1994 Nov;15(11):2645-8. PMID: 7955119
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Irving Weinstein Laboratory, New York, NY.
We have studied effects of several nutrients on the proliferation of mammary ductal epithelial cells in C57BL/6J virgin female mice, using morphometry and [3H]dT in vivo labeling. A nutritional stress diet was given based on the AIN-76A semi-synthetic diet modified to contain four significant risk factors of a Western-style diet: high fat and phosphate and decreased calcium and vitamin D. The numbers of large, intermediate and terminal ducts and proliferating epithelial cells in mammary glands were assayed in control and stress diet groups. An increased number of mammary ducts and increased number of proliferating cells were found at the level of the small terminal ducts, a cancer-prone region in the mammary gland in the stress diet group compared to the control group after 20 weeks of diet administration. Thus, mammary terminal ductal hyperproliferation, expansion in the size of the proliferative epithelial cell compartment and excessive duplication of mammary ductal epithelial cells were found after this Western-style diet containing decreased dietary calcium and vitamin D. These changes are similar to those developing in colonic epithelium of mice maintained on the same diets and during chemically induced colonic carcinogenesis.