Preventive Effects and Mechanisms of Garlic on Dyslipidemia and Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis.
Nutrients. 2019 May 29 ;11(6). Epub 2019 May 29. PMID: 31146458
Garlic (L.) contains prebiotic components, fructans, antibacterial compounds, and organosulfur compounds. The complex ingredients of garlic seem to impart a paradoxical result on the gut microbiome. In this study, we used a mouse model to clarify the effects of whole garlic on the gut microbiome. C57BL/6N male mice were fed with or without whole garlic in normal diet (ND) or in high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Supplementation with whole garlic attenuated HFD-enhanced ratio of serum GPT/GOT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), levels of T-Cho (total cholesterol) and LDLs (low-density lipoproteins), and index of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), but had no significant effect in the levels of serum HDL-c (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), TG (total triacylglycerol), and glucose. Moreover, garlic supplementation meliorated the HFD-reduced ratio of villus height/crypt depth, cecum weight, and the concentration of cecal organic acids. Finally, gut microbiota characterization by high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that whole garlic supplementation increased theα-diversity of the gut microbiome, especially increasing the relative abundance of f_and reducing the relative abundance of g_. Taken together, our data demonstrated that whole garlic supplementation could meliorate the HFD-induced dyslipidemia and disturbance of gut microbiome.