Distribution of phenolic antioxidants in whole and milled fractions of quinoa and their inhibitory effects onα-amylase and α-glucosidase activities.
Food Chem. 2016 May 15 ;199:330-8. Epub 2015 Dec 8. PMID: 26775979
Whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions were evaluated for their phenolic composition in relation to their antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects onα-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Compositional analysis by HPLC-DAD showed that the distribution of phenolic compounds in quinoa is not entirely localised in the outer layers of the kernel. Milling of whole grain quinoa resulted in about 30% loss of total phenolic content in milled grain. Ferulic and vanillic acids were the principal phenolic acids and rutin and quercetin were predominant flavonoids detected in whole grain and milled fractions. Quinoa milled fractions exhibited numerous antioxidant activities. Despite having relatively lower phenolic contents, dehulled and milled grain fractions showed significantly (p⩽0.05) higher metal chelating activity than other fractions. Furthermore, extracts of bran and hull fractions displayed strong inhibition towards α-amylase [IC50, 108.68μg/ml (bran) and 148.23μg/ml (hulls)] and α-glucosidase [IC50, 62.1μg/ml (bran) and 68.14μg/ml (hulls)] activities. Thus, whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions may serve as functional food ingredients in gluten-free foods for promoting health.