Whole Transcriptomic Analysis of Apigenin on TNFα Immuno-activated MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019 Nov-Dec;16(6):421-431. PMID: 31659097
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer is categorized by a lack of hormone receptors, inefficacy of anti-estrogen or aromatase inhibitor chemotherapies and greater mortality rates in African American populations. Advanced-stage breast tumors have a high concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) throughout the tumor/stroma milieu, prompting sustained release of diverse chemokines (i.e. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/CCL5). These potent chemokines can subsequently direct mass infiltration of leukocyte sub-populations to lodge within the tumor, triggering a loss of tumor immune surveillance and subsequent rapid tumor growth. Previously, we demonstrated that in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, TNFα evoked a rise in immune signaling proteins: CCL2, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)1α, IL6 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit epsilon (IKBKε) all of which were attenuated by apigenin, a dietary flavonoid found in chamomile and parsley.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present work elucidates changes evoked by TNFα in the presence or absence of apigenin by examining the entire transcriptome for mRNA and long intergenic non-coding RNA with Affymetrix Hugene-2.1_ST human microarrays. Differential gene-expression analysis was conducted on 48,226 genes.
RESULTS: TNFα caused up-regulation of 75 genes and down-regulation of 10. Of these, apigenin effectively down-regulated 35 of the 75 genes which were up-regulated by TNFα. These findings confirm our previous work, specifically for the TNFα-evoked spike in IL1A vs. untreated controls [+21-fold change (FC), p<0.0001] being attenuated by apigenin in the presence of TNFa (-15 FC vs. TNFα, p<0.0001). Similar trends were seen for apigenin-mediated down-regulation of TNFα-up-regulated transcripts: IKBKE (TNFα: 4.55 FC vs. control, p<0.001; and TNFα plus apigenin: -4.92 FC, p<0.001), CCL2 (2.19 FC, p<0.002; and -2.12 FC, p<0.003), IL6 (3.25 FC, p<0.020; and -2.85 FC, p<0.043) and CSF2 (TNFα +6.04 FC, p<0.001; and -2.36 FC, p<0.007). In addition, these data further establish more than a 65% reduction by apigenin for the following transcripts which were also up-regulated by TNFα: cathepsin S (CTSS), complement C3 (C3), laminin subunit gamma 2 (LAMC2), (TLR2), toll-like receptor 2 G protein-coupled receptor class C group 5 member B (GPRC5B), contactin-associated protein 1 (CNTNAP1), claudin 1 (CLDN1), nuclear factor of activated T-cells 2 (NFATC2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL11, interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK3), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 2 (NR3C2), interleukin 32 (IL32), IL24, slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2), transmembrane protein 132A (TMEM132A), TMEM171, signal transducing adaptor family member 2 (STAP2), mixedlineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL), kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), BMP-binding endothelial regulator (BMPER), and kelch-like family member 36 (KLHL36).
CONCLUSION: There is a possible therapeutic role for apigenin in down-regulating diverse genes associated with tumorigenic leukocyte sub-population infiltration by triple-negative breast cancer. The data have been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus for public analysis at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE120550.